Binaural Beats Research and Brainwave Entrainment Research

Itsu Sync binaural beats are based on hundreds of independent studies performed on the effectiveness of brainwave entrainment, binaural beats and meditation. This is what our technology is based on which has been refined into our Itsu Sync brain entrainment pro package. We have cited the different studies that our research and information is based on. We also provide links to each study if you wish to view them, many of the studies must be paid for to be fully accessed but you will be able to read the brief of them for free.

Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects“. Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H (2007). Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 13 (1): 25 – 32. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.6196.  Link to Study

Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes“. Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, et al. (2001). Alternative Therapy Health Medicine. 7 (1): 58-63.  Link to Study

The Healing Power of Sound. Gaynor, Md., M.L. (2002)  (Shambhala Publications) Link to Book

A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery“.  Padmanabhan R, Hildreth AJ, Laws D (2005).  Anaesthesia 60 (9): 874 – 7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04287 Link to Study

Cortical alpha rhythm, biofeedback, and the determinants of subjective state. Cott, A., Pavloski, R. P., & Goldman, J. A. (1981).  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 381-397. Link to Study

Neuromagnetic Responses to Binaural Beat in Human Cerebral Cortex. Karino S., Yumoto M., et al. (2006)  Journal of Neurophysiology. 96. 1927-38. Link to Study

Effect of Binaural Beat Stimulation on Pain and Mood in Individuals Reporting Chronic Low Back Pain. Reddi V., (2002) Moore Health Science Library, University of Virginia. Link to Book

Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms“.Saxby E, Peniston EG (1995).  Journal of clinical psychology 51 (5): 685 – 93. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(199509)51:5<685::AID-JCLP2270510514>3.0.CO;2-K.  Link to Study

Alpha biofeedback therapy in alcoholics: an 18-month follow-up“.  Watson CG, Herder J, Passini FT (1978).  Journal of clinical psychology 34 (3): 765ï – 9. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(197807)34:3<765::AID-JCLP2270340339>3.0.CO;2-5. Link to Study

A pilot study comparing reduction of anxiety by binaural beat audio and patient-selected music in the pre-operative period. Chuter E., Allan M., Laws D. (2007).  Anaesthesia. V62, I3 page 310. Link to Study

Binaural beat induced theta EEG activity and hypnotic susceptibility: contradictory results and technical considerations. Stevens L et al., (2003). The American Journal Clinical Hypnosis 45(4):295-309. Link to Study

Binaural-beat induced theta EEG activity and hypnotic susceptibility. Brady B., (2000)  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. Link to Study

Auditory brain wave stimulation in treating alcoholic depression. Waldkoetter, R. O. & Sanders, G. O. (1997).  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, p. 226. Link to Study

Effects of Binaural-beat Stimulation on Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study. Klepp S., (2005)  Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine. Link to Study

QEEG analysis of binaural beat audio entrainment: A pilot study. Kennerly, R., (2004)  Journal of Neurotherapy

Quantification of pseudo-periodicity of alpha rhythm in meditation EEG. Lo P, Leu J,  Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Vol 25, No 1. Link to Study

Auditory beats in the brain“.Oster G (1973).  Sci. Am. 229 (4): 94 – 102. Link to Study

Megabrain: new tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion. Hutchison, Michael M. (1986).  New York: W. Morrow. Link to Book

Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity“ Spitzer MW, Semple MN (1998). . J. Neurophysiolgy. 80 (6): 3062 – 3076. PMID 9862906. Link to Study

Neural basis of rhythmic timing networks in the human brain“. Thaut MH (2003).  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 999: 364 – 373. doi:10.1196/annals.1284.044.  Link to Study

Application of binaural beat phenomenon with aphasic patients“.  Barr DF, Mullin TA, Herbert PS. (1977).  Arch Otolaryngol. 103 (4): 192-194. Link to Study

Human frequency-following responses to monaural and binaural stimuli“.  Gerken GM, Moushegian G, Stillman RD, Rupert AL (1975).  Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 38 (4): 379 – 386. Link to Study

Binaural interaction in human auditory evoked potentials“. Dobie RA, Norton SJ (1980).   Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 49 (3-4): 303 – 313. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(80)90224-2. Link to Study

Evaluation of frequency-following potentials in man: masking and clinical studies“.  Moushegian G, Rupert AL, Stillman RD (1978). Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 45 (6): 711 – 718. Link to Study

Human auditory frequency-following responses to a missing fundamental“. Smith JC, Marsh JT, Greenberg S, Brown WS (1978).  Science 201 (4356): 639 – 641. doi:10.1126/science.675250.  Link to Study

Far-field recorded frequency-following responses: evidence for the locus of brainstem sources“. Smith JC, Marsh JT, Brown WS (1975). Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 39 (5): 465 – 472.  Link to Study

Simultaneous recordings of the brain stem response and the frequency-following response to low-frequency tone“. Yamada O, Yamane H, Kodera K (1977). Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 43 (3): 362 – 370. Link to Study

Influence of sinusoidally modulated visual stimuli at extremely low frequency range on the human EEG activity“. Cvetkovic D, Simpson D, Cosic I (2006).  Conference proceedings : … Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 1: 1311 – 1314. doi:10.1109 Link to Study

Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report“. Ogilvie RD, Hunt HT, Tyson PD, Lucescu ML, Jeakins DB (1982). Perceptual and motor skills 55 (3 Pt 1): 795 – 808. PMID 7162915. Link to Study

Hippocampal theta oscillations and classical conditioning“. Berry SD, Seager MA (2001).  Neurobiol Learn Mem 76 (3): 298 – 313. doi:10.1006/nlme.2001.4025.  Link to Study

Oscillatory brain states and learning: Impact of hippocampal theta-contingent training“. Seager MA, Johnson LD, Chabot ES, Asaka Y, Berry SD (2002). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (3): 1616 – 1620. doi:10.1073/pnas.032662099. Link to Study

Theta-contingent trial presentation accelerates learning rate and enhances hippocampal plasticity during trace eyeblink conditioning“. Griffin AL, Asaka Y, Darling RD, Berry SD (2004).  Behav. Neurosci. 118 (2): 403 – 411. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.118.2.403.  Link to Study

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance“. Vernon D, Egner T, Cooper N. International journal of psychophysiology, et al (2003). ” : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 47 (1): 75 – 85. Link to Study

Increased theta and alpha EEG activity during nondirective meditation. Lagopoulos J, Xu J, Rasmussen I, et al., (2009)  The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 15(11): 1187-1192. Link to Study

Impact of regular meditation practice on eeg activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions.  Aftanas L., Golosheykin S., (2005) International Journal of Neuroscience. 115, 6 :893-909 Link to Study

A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Chiesa A., Serretti A., (2010)  Psychological Medicine. 40: 1239-1252. Link to Study

Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation. Aftanas L., Golocheikine S., (2001)  Neuroscience Letters. Vol. 310- 1, 57-60. Link to Study

Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self. Lehmann d., Faber P.L., Achermann P., et al., (2001) Psychiatry Research & Neuroimaging. Vol.108-2, 111-121. Link to Study

Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative meditation. Baijal S., Narayanan S., (2010)  Cognitive Processing. Vol.11-1, 31-38. Link to Study

Effects of meditation on frontal [alpha]-asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D., Crane, C., et al., (2007)  Neuroreport. Vol.18, Issue 7, 709-712. Link to Study

From alpha to gamma: Electrophysiological correlates of meditation-related states of consciousness.  Fell J., Axmacher N., Haupt S., (2010) Medical Hypotheses. Vol.75, Issue 2, P.218-224. Link to Study

Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation.  Tang Y., Ma Y., Wang J., Yaxin F., et al., (2007) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences. vol. 104, 43. Link to Study

Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise. Lutz A, Brefczynski-Lewis J, Johnstone T, Davidson R., (2008) PLOS One. 3(3): e1897. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001897 Link to Study

A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction.  S Jain, SL Shapiro, et al., (2007)  Annals of Behavioral Medicine Volume 33, Number 1, 11-21 Link to Study

Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Farb N., Segal., et al., (2007)  Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience. Volume 2, Issue 4. 313-322. Link to Study

Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. G Pagnoni, M Cekic, (2007)  - Neurobiology of aging. 28-10 1623-1627. Link to Study

Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness Meditation Interventions on Adaptation to Rheumatoid Arthritis for Patients With and Without History of Recurrent Depression.  Zautra A., Davis M., et al., (2008) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Volume 76, Issue 3, June 2008, Pages 408-421 Link to Study

Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized clinical trial. SE Sephton, P Salmon, I Weissbecker, C, (2007).  Arthritis Care & Research Volume 57, Issue 1, pages 77 – 85. Link to Study

Mindfulness Meditation and Substance Use in an Incarcerated Population. sychology of Addictive Behaviors. Bowen S., Witkiewitz K., et al., (2006).  American Psychological Association 2006, Vol. 20, No. 3, 343 – 347. Link to Study

Mindfulness Meditation Training in Adults and Adolescents With ADHD: A Feasibility Study.  Zylowska L., Ackerman D., (2007). Journal of Attention Disorders. Link to Study

Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Carter, Olivia L. Presti, D., et al., (2005) Current Biology, 15 (11). Link to Article

Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Kosycki D., Benger M., et al., (2007). Behaviour Research and Therapy. Vol. 45-10, 2518-2526. Link to Study

An Alpha-wave-based binaural beat sound control system using fuzzy logic and autoregressive forecasting model. S Settapat, M Ohkura, (2008) SICE Annual Conference. 20-22, 109-114 Link to Study

Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Tang Y, Yinghua M., et al., (2009). PNAS. 106-22 8865-8870. Link to Study

Buddha’s Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation [In the Spotlight]. Davidson, R., Lutz, A., (2008). Signal Processing Magazine. 25-1 176-174 Link to Study

Can Meditation Slow Rate of Cellular Aging? Cognitive Stress, Mindfulness, and Telomeres.  Epel E., et al., (2009). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 1172, 34-53 Link to Study

Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Pace, T., Negi L., (2009).  Psychoneuroendocrinology Volume 34-1. 87-98.  Link to Study

Healing the mind: Meditation and multiple sclerosis. Tavee and Stone. (2010)  Neurology. 75: 1130-1131 Link to Study

Meditation can reduce habitual responding. Wenk S., (2005). Alternative Therapy Health Medicine. 21(3-4): 33-49 Link to Study

Human Brainwaves: The Psychological Significance of the Electroencephalogram. Empson, J. (1986). (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.) Link to Book

Changes in electroencephalographic activity associated with learning a novel motor task. Etnier, J. L., Whitwer, S. S., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., & Salazar, H. M. (1996) Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 67(3), 272-287. Link to Study

Physiological correlates of mental activity: Eye movements, alpha, and heart rate during imaging, suppression, concentration, search, and choice. Klinger, E., Gregoire, K. C., & Barta, S. G. (1973)  Psychophysiology, 10, 471-477. Link to Study

Some aspects of electroencephalographic studies in yogis. Anand, B. K., Chhina, G. S., & Singh, B. (1961).  Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 13, 452-456. Link to Study

Consciousness and self-regulation: Advances in research. Davidson, R. J., Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D. (1980). (Vol. 3). New York: Plenum Press. Link to Study

The functional organization of the brain. Luria, A. R. (1970).  In Recent Progress in Perception. (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company). Link to Study

Far-field recorded frequency-following responses: Correlates of low pitch auditory perception in humans. Marsh, J.T., Brown, W.S., & Smith, J.C. (1975).  Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, pp. 113-119. Link to Study

Sleep: A Scientific Perspective. Anch, A.M., Browman, C.P., Mitler, M.M. & Walsh, J.K. (1988). (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall). Link to Book

Healing Mantras: Using Sound Affirmations for Personal Power, Creativity and Healing. Ashley-Farrand, T. (1999).  (Ballantine Wellspring) Link to Book

Simultaneous EEG and other recordings during some yogic practices. Bagchi, B. K., & Wenger, M. A. (1958) Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 193.

Spectral analysis of the EEG and meditation. Banquet, J. P. (1973).  Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35,2 , 143-151 Link to Study

Lucid dreaming treatment for nightmares: a pilot study“. Spoormaker VI, van den Bout J (2006). Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 75 (6): 389 – 394. doi:10.1159/000095446. Link to Study

Recovered memories“. Loftus EF, Davis D (2006). Annual review of clinical psychology 2: 469 – 98. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095315. Link to Study

Music and Sound in the Healing Arts. Beaulieu, J. (1995). (Barrytown Station Hill Press) Link to Book

Beck Depression Inventory Manual. Beck, A. T. (1987). New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc. Link to Book

Measurement of brain potentials with EEG. Beisteiner R, Altenmuller E, Lang W, Lindinger G, Deecke L. (1994)  European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 6:311-27. Link to Study

Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats“.Taylor P (2005). Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 116 (3): 658 – 668. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2004.09.014. PMID 15721080.  Link to Study

Methods for finding single generators, with application to auditory driving of the human EEG by complex stimuli“.Rogers LJ, Walter DO (1981).  J. Neurosci. Methods 4 (3): 257 – 65. doi:10.1016/0165-0270(81)90037-6.  Link to Study

Human central auditory plasticity associated with tone sequence learning“. Gottselig JM, Brandeis D, Hofer-Tinguely G, Borby AA, Achermann P (2004).  Learn. Mem. 11 (2): 162 – 71. doi:10.1101/lm.63304.  Link to Study

Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics“.  Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ (1989).  Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 13 (2): 271 – 9. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1989.tb00325.x. Link to Study

Applied Research Using Alpha/Theta Training For Enhancing Creativity and Well-Being.  Boynton, T. (2001)  Journal of Neurotherapy, 5. Link to Study

Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood“.  Lane JD, Kasian SJ, Owens JE, Marsh GR (1998).  Physiol. Behav. 63 (2): 249 – 252. Link to Study

Operant control of occipital theta rhythm affects performance in a radar monitoring task“.  Beatty J, Greenberg A, Deibler WP, O’Hanlon JF (1974). Science 183 (127): 871 – 873. doi:10.1126/science.183.4127.871.  Link to Study

Megabrain: new tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion. Hutchison, Michael M. (1986). New York: W. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04880-3. Link to Book

Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Banquet, J. P. (1973). Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35, 143-151. Link to Study

Altered states of consciousness in everyday life: The ultradian rhythms. Rossi, E. L. (1986)  In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 97-133. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company).

EEG correlates of hypnotic susceptibility and hypnotic trance: Spectral analysis and coherence. Sabourin, M. E., Cutcomb, S. E., Crawford, H. J., & Pribram, K. (1990). International Journal of Psychophysiology, 10, pp. 125-142. Link to Study

The relationship of creativity to cortical activation and its operant control.Martindale, C., Armstrong, J. (1974)  Journal of Genetic Psychology, 124, 311-320. Link to Study

Recognition of aspects of consciousness through association with EEG alpha activity represented by a light signal. Brown, B. B. (1970).  Psychophysiology, 6, 442-452. Link to Study

Clinical applications of non-drug-induced states. Budzynski, T. H. (1986). In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 428-460. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company). Link to Study

Creativity, consciousness, and cortical arousal. Martindale, C. (1978)  Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, 3, 69-87. Link to Study

The Differential Effect of Increased Arousal on Creative and Intellectual Performance. Martindale, C. & Greenough, J. (1973) The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 123, 329-335. Link to Study

Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation.Pfurtscheller, G., and Andrew, C. (1999)  Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 16(6), 512-519 Link to Study

Functional organization of different brain areas during convergent and divergent thinking: an EEG investigation.Razoumnikova, O.M. (2000) Cognitive Brain Research. 10(1-2), 11-18. Link to Study

EEG Differences as a Function of Creativity, Stage of the Creative Process, and Effort to be Original. Martindale, C. & Hasenfus, N. (1978) Biological Psychology. 6, 157-167. Link to Study

Creativity and cortical activation during creative, intellectual and EEG feedback tasks. Biological Psychology. Martindale, C., Mines, D. (1975)  3, 91-100. Link to Study

Instincts, Archetypes and Symbols: An Approach to the Physiology of Religious Experience. Henry, J.P. (1992).  (Dayton: College Press). Link to Book

Binaural interaction of a beating frequency following response. Hink, R. F., Kodera, K., Yamada, O., Kaga, K., & Suzuki, J. (1980). Audiology, 19, pp. 36-43. Link to Study

A cartography of ecstatic and meditative states. Fischer, R. (1971). Science, 174 (4012), pp. 897-904. Link to Study

Interhemispheric alpha rhythm synchronization: A voluntary altered state of consciousness. Mikuriya, T. H. (1979) American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 2, 22-25. Link to Study

EEG complexity and performance measures of creative thinking. Molle, M., Marshall, L., Wolf, B., Horst, L., & Born, J. (1999). Psychophysiology. 36 Link to Study

Dynamics and Evoked Potentials in Sensory and Cognitive Processing by the Brain. Basar, E. (ed.) (1988) Springer Series in Brain Dynamics, 1, 30-55. Link to Study

Electroencephalographic Study of Zen Meditation. Hirai, T. (1960) Psychiatry. Neurology. 62, 76-105. Link to Study

Megabrain: New tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion. Hutchison, M. (1986). (Beech Tree Books). pp. 261-281. Link to Book

Infinite Mind: The Science of Human Vibrations. Hunt, V. V. (1995).  (Malibu: Malibu Publishing Company). Link to Book

Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982) Biofeedback and Self-Regulation. 7, 211-221. Link to Study

The physiology of meditation: A review. A wakeful hypnometabolic integrated response. Jevning, R., Wallace, R. K., & Beidenbach, M. (1992Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews). , 16, pp. 415-424. Link to Study

Evaluation of state of consciousness using software support for monitoring spatio-temporal EEG changes. Jovanov, E., Rakovi, D., Car, M. (1995)  ISCA Intl. Conference on Computer Applications in Engineering and Medicine.

EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Creativity.Martindale, C., Mines, D., Mitchell, L., Covello, E. (1984) Personality & Individual Differences. 5(1), 77-86. Link to Study

Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence. Matarazzo, J. D. (1972). 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Link to Study

Hypnosis and sleep: The Control of Altered States of Awareness. Evans, F. J. (1977).  , Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 296: 162–174 Link to Study

Efficacy of alpha biofeedback training in elevating mood. Bear. (1977). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 334. Link To Study

Operant control of occipital theta rhythm affects performance in a radar monitoring task. Beatty, J.; Greenberg, A.; Deibler, W. P.; O’ Hanlon, J. F. (1974).  Science 183:871-873. Link to Study

A state-trait analysis of alpha density and personality variables in a normal population. Degood, D. E., & Valle, R. S. (1975). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 624-631. Link to Study

Auditory beats in the brain. Oster, G. (1973) Scientific American, 229, pp. 94-102. Link to Study

The Mystery of the Mind. Penfield, W. (1975) (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Link to Study

Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcoholism: Peniston, E. G., and Kulkosky, P. J. (1989) Clinical and Experimental Research. 13:271-79. Link to Study

Human frequency-following responses to monaural and binaural stumuli. Gerken, G. M., Moushegian, G., Stillman, R. D., & Rupert, A. L. (1975). Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, 379-386. Link to Study

High-resolution EEG mapping of cortical activation related to working memory: Effects of task difficulty, type of processing, and practice. Gevins, A., Smith, M. E., McEvoy, L., & Yu, D. (1997) Cerebral Cortex. 7(4), 374-385. Link to Study

Electrocortical activity and related phenomena associated with meditation practice: A literature review.  Delmonte, M. M. (1984). International Journal of Neuroscience, 24, pp. 217-231. Link to Study

Plastic changes in the auditory cortex induced by intensive frequency discrimination training“.  Menning H, Roberts LE, Pantev C (2000). Neuroreport 11 (4): 817 – 822.  Link to Study

An electroencephalographic study on the zen meditation. Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T. (1969) In Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness (pp. 501-514). Link to Study

An empirical investigation into the effect of beta frequency binaural beat audio signals on four measures of human memory. Kennerly, R. C. (1994). (Department of Psychology, West Georgia College, Carrolton, Georgia). Link to Study

Approaches to verbal, visual and musical creativity by EEG coherence analysis. Petsche, H. (1996) International Journal of Psychophysiology. 24(1-2), 145-159. Link to Study

Biofeedback and states of consciousness. Green, E. E. & Green, A. M. (1986).  In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 553-589. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company). Link to Study

Voluntary control of internal states: psychological and physiological. Green, E. E., Green, A. M., & Walters, E. D. (1970). Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 2, 1-25. Link to Study

Functional cerebral asymmetries and cognitive abilities in musicians, painters, and controls. Hassler M. (1990)  Cognitive Brain Research. 13:1-17. Link to Study

Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm and some of its reported effects on consciousness. Kamiya, J. (1969) In Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness (pp. 519-529). Link to Study

The possible meaning of the upper and lower alpha frequency ranges for cognitive and creative tasks. Petsche, H., Kaplan, S., von Stein, A., and Filz, O. (1997) International Journal of Psychophysiology. 26, 77-97. Link to Study

Consciousness and self-regulation: Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D. (Eds.). (1976). Advances in research. (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press. Link to Study

Lateralized rhythms of the central and autonomic nervous systems. Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. (1991). International Journal of Psychophysiology, 11, pp. 225-251. Link to Study

Synchronization of cortical activity and its putative role in information processing and learning. Singer, W. (1993) Annual Review Physiology, 55, 349-374. Link to Study

Human auditory frequency-following responses to a missing fundamental. Smith, J.C., Marsh, J.T., Greenberg, S., & Brown, W.S. (1978). Science, 201, pp. 639-641. Link to Study

Thalamocortical oscillations in the sleeping and aroused brain. Steriade, M., McCormick, D. A., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1993). Science, 262, 679-685. Link to Study

The Physiology of Meditation, Wallace, R.K., Benson, H. (1972)  Scientific American. 226:284. Link to Study

Meditation and the EEG. West, M. A. (1980). Psychological Medicine, 10, pp. 369-375. Link to Study

Webb, W. B., & Dube, M. G. (1981). Temporal characteristics of sleep. In J. Aschoff (Ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, pp. 510-517. (New York: Plenum Press).

Academic implications of dual-brain theory. Zaidel, E. (1985). In The Dual Brain. (New York: The Guilford Press). Link to Study

EEG findings during special psychical state (Qi Gong State) by means of comressed spectral array and topographic mapping, Zhang, J.Z, Zhao, J., He, Q.N., (1988)  Computers in Biology and Medicine. Vol. 18, 6:455-463. Link to Study

Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation. Davidson, R., Kabat-Zinn J., et al. (2003)  Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine. 65:564-570.  Link to Study

Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Lazar S, Kerr C, Wasserman R, Gray J., (2005) Neuroreport. 16(17): 1893 – 1897. Link to Study
Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Cahn BR, Polich J., (2006)  Psychological Bulletin. Vol 132(2) 180-211. Link to Study
State Effects of Two Forms of Meditation on Prefrontal EEG Asymmetry in Previously Depressed Individuals. Barnhofer, T, Chittka T, et al., (2009) Mindfulness. Vol. 1-1, 21-27. Link to Study

Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Brefczynski-Lewis J, Lutz A,. (2007) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences. vol. 104-127. Link to Study

Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness Among College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Oman D, Shapiro S, et al., (2008). Journal of American College Health, Volume 56, Number 5, 569 – 578 Link to Study

Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Moore A., Malinowski P. (2009) Consciousness and Cognition, 18 (1), pp. 176-186. Link to Study
Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. Takahashi T, Murata T,et al., (2005)  International Journal of Psychophysiology. Vol.55-2, 199-207. Link to Study